This article describes the main problems that science education faces in industrialised countries: a general negative opinion of the sciences, a decline in the number of students choosing to study science and a decline in the number of students signing up for doctorate programmes in science. The article puts forward the hypothesis that all this is the result of a conflicting scenario: students have postmodern identities, while education is modern. To this end, the article reviews the main philosophical and sociological ideas about post-modernity, and the criticism of modern education that has arisen from same. The article then goes on to describe the difficulty that postmodern discourse has in propounding a genuinely postmodern pedagogy. Finally, it proposes the idea that performativity theory could participate in the conflicting scenario of science education.